The windshield washer pump is a small electric fluid pump that pressurizes the washer solvent used to clean your windshield.
Attached to the washer solvent reservoir (bottle), the washer pump draws the cleaning solution from the reservoir and sends it through a rubber hose to the spray nozzles mounted ahead of your windshield. When you engage the washer switch (often by pulling back or twisting the washer lever next to your steering wheel), the pump turns on, forcing fluid to and through the spray nozzles. Because the washer solvent is pressurized by the pump, it atomizes as it exits the nozzles in the way that a garden hose sprays when you place your thumb over the opening.
The most common sign that your windshield washer pump needs to be replaced is that your washer nozzles do not squirt out any washer solvent when you activate the switch. Of course, the same can happen if the fluid has run out, or if there is a leak in the system (such as a broken reservoir or hose). But in those cases, you might still be able to hear the washer pump whirring when you turn it on. If the pump is bad, you will not hear it engage. A blown fuse can also prevent the pump from turning on.
To replace the windshield washer pump on your vehicle, a technician will have to access the solvent bottle or reservoir where the pump is located. Depending on your specific vehicle make and model, that often involves lifting and supporting your vehicle in the air. Sometimes the front bumper assembly must be removed. Other times a plastic fender liner can be detached and moved out of the way instead. On some vehicles, the entire reservoir must be removed in order to change out the old pump for a new one.
In general, whether the replacement is performed with the reservoir in place or removed from the vehicle, the electrical wire connector to the pump must be detached. So must the fluid hose that leads to the spray nozzles. The pump is usually pressed into a grommet near the bottom of the reservoir, so the technician must pull it from its mount. A new grommet and pump are installed, and the wires and hose are reconnected before any other components are reinstalled.
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