A cruise control module is a computer control module, one of many in your vehicle, that receives and processes data in order to cause your vehicle to maintain a given speed and, in some cases, activate the braking system.
Cruise control, a feature of the engine management system in most modern vehicles, allows a vehicle to maintain a specific speed at the request of the driver and without input to the gas pedal (throttle) by the driver. Once the vehicle reaches a desired speed on the road, the driver engages the cruise control system, and the vehicle continues at that speed until the system is disengaged, or the driver steps on the brake pedal. The latest systems also react to input from special sensors that can detect the distance to the vehicle ahead and adjust the speed accordingly.
Older cruise control systems relied on mechanical components, such as an actuator connected to a cable that would open and close the throttle valve. That arrangement allowed the engine to apply as much power as necessary to maintain vehicle speed. Modern systems are entirely electronic. Data received from the wheel speed sensors, transmission control module, brake light switch, ignition switch, ABS module, and distance sensors (if the vehicle is so equipped) - along with input from the driver’s controls - are all processed in the cruise control module to actuate the throttle.